In-toeing, also known as “pigeon toed” is a condition that causes the feet to turn inwards when walking.

It is common in childhood and generally corrects itself as the child grows. There is usually minimal to no pain associated with this condition and does not generally interfere with the way your child learns to walk. Children might be more prone to tripping, or

look awkward when walking or running.


  • Metatarsus adductus – the foot is turned inwards
  • Internal tibial torsion- where the shinbone twists inwards
  • Internal femoral torsion– the thigh bone is twisted inwards
  • Intrauterine positioning – The twist can occur while the bones are still soft.
  • “W” sitting and abnormal sleeping positions – increases internal rotation at the hip and knee joints.


In-toeing can resolve by itself as the bone slowly untwists as the child grows. If in-toeing is excessive or not resolved by the time school is started, treatment is indicated. Treatment options may include:

  • Change sitting and sleeping positions.
  • Exercises for external rotation of the legs (e.g. frog jumps, bike riding, ballet). Appropriate footwear
  • Casting or bracing, if severe
  • Surgery in very extreme cases that are not responding to conservative treatment.


The information in this resource is general in nature and is only intended to provide a summary of the subject matter covered. It is not a substitute for medical advice and you should always consult a trained professional practising in the area of medicine in relation to any injury or condition. You use or rely on information in this resource at your own risk and no party involved in the production of this resource accepts any responsibility for the information contained within it or your use of that information.